Jefferson University Hospitals

Frequently Asked Questions

Does my insurance cover blood & marrow transplants?

We recommend each patient go through the following steps with their insurance company. While we are available to assist, many insurers will only provide this information directly to their patients.

Step 1: Contact your insurance provider to determine if they cover stem cell transplants.

Typically the member service number is provided on the back of your insurance card. Once you are in contact with a customer service representative, verify that they are able to provide you information on your benefits and simply ask if your plan provide coverage for stem cell transplants.  You may be assigned a case manager to assist you in the pre-transplant process.
Step 2: Request a detailed summary of your benefits.

If you do not already have a summary of your covered benefits, request a full detailed version for your records. This will assist you in understanding what you are responsible for throughout the transplant process, from tests, imaging, and pharmaceutical products.
Step 3: Ask detailed questions on your plan.
The following questions are helpful in determining the details of your insurance plan:

  1. Am I covered for stem cell transplant for my diagnosis?
  2. Does my policy restrict where I can receive care? Is Jefferson in my provider network?
  3. Does my policy have a deductible and coinsurance amount? If so, for what and how much?
  4. Does my policy have co-payments? If so, for what and how much?
  5. Does my policy have co-payments for prescriptions? If so, for what and how much?
  6. Is there a yearly or lifetime maximum amount of out of pocket expenses that I would be responsible for? If yes, how much? What costs are included in this amount?
  7. Are there any coverage exclusions in my policy? If yes, how long is coverage excluded?
  8. Does my policy cover unrelated transplants for my diagnosis?
  9. Does my policy cover expenses for testing to find a matched donor?
  10. Are there any limits or exclusions for my donor coverage?
  11. Does my policy limit the number of transplants I can receive in a lifetime?
  12. Is pre-authorization required for pre-transplant testing?
  13. Is pre-authorization required for treatment? If so, to whom should the request be sent?
  14. Does my policy cover indirect expense for me, my family/caregiver, such as travel, food, and lodging costs while I receive care? If so, how much?
  15. If I have a complaint, or want to appeal my coverage, how do I do that?


Step 4: Contact Theresa McNeil, 215-955-9384, for an initial insurance discussion.

Theresa will be your insurance company's primary contact at Jefferson during the transplant process and will work to make sure your care is properly covered according to your benefits.

Are breast changes normal?

Yes. Every woman's breasts change during the course of her menstrual cycle, pregnancy, breast-feeding and menopause. Sometimes, however, breast changes such as a change in the size, appearance or feel of your breasts indicates a more serious problem, one requiring a physician's attention.

What kind of breast problems can occur?

The most common breast problems are the presence of benign (non-cancerous) cysts in the breast. Cysts are small, fluid-filled lumps, ranging in size from very tiny to the size of a golf ball. Fibrocystic change, which most often affects women between 25 and 50 years old, may cause your breasts to feel tender and heavy. Medical research links fibrocystic breasts to changes in diet. For some women, caffeine stimulates the formation of cysts. Cutting down on the consumption of coffee, tea, cola beverages and chocolate may help to improve breast symptoms.

Approximately one in eight women will develop breast cancer during their lifetime. The word cancer refers to a group of diseases, all involving the rapid growth of abnormal cells somewhere in the body. Fortunately, breast cancer can be successfully treated when detected early. Yearly physical examinations, monthly breast self-examinations and mammography, if your doctor recommends it, greatly increase your chance to detect breast cancer early.

What if I found a lump?

A breast lump is the first noticeable sign of a breast problem. A lump in the breast can be detected by both you and your doctor by doing a physical exam. The earlier you find a lump, the more successful the treatment of the disease. Because of this, you should get into the habit of performing routine breast self-examination. Women practicing regular breast self-exams discover many of their own breast lumps. During your regular visit, your gynecologist or gynecological nurse practitioner (gyn np) will also examine your breasts for any abnormalities.

How do I perform a breast self-examination?

Make a commitment to do a self-breast examination routinely, every month. Do the exam on the same day each month so that you won't forget. The best time to perform a breast self-exam is 7-14 days after your menstrual period, when your breasts are no longer swollen or tender. If you do not get a menstrual period, then pick a time every month to exam your breasts. Regular self-breast exams will familiarize you with the way your breasts normally look and feel. The following guidelines can be used to help learn how to do a breast exam:

1. Sit or stand in front of a mirror, and examine the way your breasts look. Has either of your breasts changed in appearance or in size or shape? Look for puckering or dimpling of the breast skin, and retraction (pushing in) of your nipples. Then, lift your arms and place your hands on your head, and check the appearance of your breasts again. Finally, press your hands firmly against your hips and inspect your breasts a third time.

2. Now, lie down. Flatten your right breast by placing a pillow under your right shoulder. Place your right arm behind your head.

3. Use the sensitive finger pads (where your fingerprints are, not the tips) of the middle three fingers on your left hand. When doing a breast exam, feel for lumps using a circular, rubbing motion in small, dime-sized circles without lifting the fingers. Powder, oil or lotion can be applied to the breast to make it easier for the fingers to glide over the surface and feel changes to your breast.

4. Press firmly enough to feel different breast tissues, using three different pressures. First, light pressure to just move the skin without jostling the tissue beneath; then, medium pressure pressing midway into the tissue; and finally, deep pressure to probe more deeply down to the ribs or to the point just short of discomfort.

5. Completely feel all of the breast and chest area up under your armpit, up to the collarbone and all the way over to your shoulder and down to your bra line.

6. Use the same pattern to feel every part of the breast tissue. Choose the method easiest for you:

Self-Breast Exam Illustration

Circles - Beginning at the outer edge of your breast, move your fingers slowly around the breast in a circle. Move around the breast in smaller and smaller circles, gradually working toward the nipple. Don't forget to check the underarm and upper chest areas too.

Lines - Start in the underarm area and move your fingers downward little by little until they are below the breast. Then, move your fingers slightly toward the middle and slowly move back up. Go up and down until you cover the whole area.

Wedges - Starting at the outer edge of the breast, move your fingers toward the nipple and back to the edge. Check your whole breast, covering one small wedge-shaped section at a time. Be sure to check the underarm area and the upper chest when doing a breast exam. After you have completed a breast self-examination of your right breast, examine your left breast using the same method, and your right hand with a pillow under your left shoulder. You may want to examine your breasts or do an extra exam while showering. It's easy to slide soapy hands over your skin and feel anything unusual. 

What should I look for when doing a breast self-examination?

Many breasts feel naturally lumpy. This is no cause for alarm. Pay attention to anything that seems new or unusual - new lumps, puckering, dimpling, a thickening or hardening under the skin, a retraction of the nipple, or any other change in the way your breasts or nipples look. Discharge or bleeding from your nipple also signals a problem which needs to be evaluated by a physician.

What if I find something abnormal when doing my self-examination?

If anything abnormal is found after performing your self breast examination, or you notice a change in your breasts, see your doctor immediately to evaluate. If you do not have cancer, you will feel reassured. If you do have cancer, the earlier your doctor can begin treating it, the better your chances for cure.

Your doctor will perform a thorough breast examination, similar to the one you do at home. Based on that exam, and on your medical history, your doctor may recommend further tests to determine the cause of your breast abnormalities found during the exam. These tests include mammography, breast ultrasound, breast MRI or a biopsy.

What is lung cancer?

Lung cancer occurs when the normal action of cells division becomes uncontrollable, and a mass of tissue called a tumor forms.

Malignant tumors are cancers, which can invade and damage nearby lymph nodes, tissues and organs. Cancer cells can also break away from a malignant tumor and enter the bloodstream, spreading to other parts of the body where they can form new tumors. Build up of fluid around involved lung, or plural effusion, could be an indicator of lung cancer.

It is also possible to have a non-cancerous (benign) tumor in the lung which rarely poses a threat to life. Despite that such lesions still may need to be removed to make sure that no malignancy is present in that area.

What causes lung cancer?

Research has shown that certain risks increase a person's likelihood of developing lung cancer: 

  • Tobacco smokers
  • Secondhand exposure to tobacco smoke
  • Asbestos, radon and air pollution exposure
  • Being age 65 or older
  • People who drink water containing arsenic
  • Prior history of lung cancer
  • Family history of lung cancer

What are the types of lung cancer?

Nearly all lung cancers are carcinomas – cancers that begin in the lining or glandular tissues of an organ.

Lung cancers are generally divided into two major groups: non-small cell lung cancer and small cell lung cancer. The tumor cells of each type of lung cancer grow and spread differently and each type needs different treatment.

Nonsmall cell lung cancer is the more common of the two groups. The three main types of nonsmall cell lung cancer are named for the type of cells in the tumor:

  • Squamous cell carcinoma, also called epidermoid carcinoma, is the most common type of lung cancer in the United States and many other countries. This disease often begins in the bronchi, or large air tubes leading to the lungs. It usually spreads less quickly than other types of lung cancer.
  • Adenocarcinoma usually begins along the outer edges of the lungs and under the lining of the bronchi. This is the most common type of lung cancer in women and in people who have never smoked. The incidence of adenocarcinomas is on the rise.
  • Large cell carcinomas, which usually begin along the outer edges of the lungs, are a group of cancers with large, abnormal-looking cells.

Small cell lung cancer grows rapidly and spreads quickly to other organs. This type of lung cancer accounts for 10 percent to 20 percent of all lung cancers.

What are the symptoms of lung cancer?

At first, lung cancer usually doesn't cause symptoms. Doctors sometimes discover it in people without symptoms after a chest X-ray for another medical reason. Usually, however, lung cancer is found after the growing tumor causes symptoms to appear.

A cough, which is the most common symptom of lung cancer, is likely to occur when a tumor irritates the lining of the airways or blocks the passage of air. The person may have a “smoker's cough” that worsens.

Another symptom of lung cancer is constant chest pain. Other symptoms may include shortness of breath, wheezing, repeated bouts of pneumonia or bronchitis, coughing up blood or hoarseness.

A tumor that presses on large blood vessels near the lung can cause swelling of the neck and face. If the tumor presses on certain nerves near the lung, it can cause pain and weakness in the shoulder, arm or hand. Problems with vision could be an indirect sign of nerve involvement as well.

In addition, lung cancer symptoms may not seem related to the lungs. Like all cancers, lung cancer can cause fatigue, loss of appetite and loss of weight. If the disease spreads elsewhere, it may cause headache, pain or bone fractures.

Other signs or symptoms of lung cancer result from substances the lung cancer cells make. For example, certain lung cancer cells produce a substance that sharply reduces the level of sodium (a component of salt) in the blood. This can cause many symptoms, including confusion and sometimes even coma.

None of these, however, is a sure sign of lung cancer. Only a physician can tell whether a patient's symptoms are caused by lung cancer or another problem.

How is a lung cancer diagnosis determined?

A lung cancer diagnosis is made through a series of questions, examinations and tests. Your doctor will start by asking about personal and family medical background, as well as smoking and work history.

The physician also performs a physical examination and usually orders chest X-rays and other tests.

In addition, the doctor may order a computerized tomography (CT) scan, which is a series of X-ray images put together by a computer. These detailed pictures can reveal a tumor in the lung, but they cannot show whether the tumor is benign or malignant.

The only sure way a lung cancer diagnosis can be determined is to obtain cells from the lungs for examination under the microscope. Sometimes, cancer cells are in the sputum, a thick fluid that the patient coughs up from deep in the airways. Also, the doctor usually does a lung biopsy to remove a sample of cells from the lung.

When a lung cancer diagnosis is suspected, physicians will perform a biopsy, physicians use one of the following procedures:

  • Bronchoscopy – this permits the physician to look into the breathing passages through a bronchoscope, which is a thin, flexible, lighted tube inserted through the nose or mouth under local or general anesthesia. The doctor can brush or wash cells from the walls of bronchi or snip off small pieces of tissue for study under the microscope. Depending on the location of the tumor, transbroncheal biopsy of the tumor may be performed.
  • Percutaneous Needle biopsy – removal of tissue hard to reach with the bronchoscope. With the patient under a local anesthetic and using CT or X-ray fluoroscopy guidance, the doctor inserts a needle through the chest wall into the tumor to withdraw a small sample of tissue.
  • Thoracentesis – an examination of fluid from the pleura (the fluid-filled sac surrounding the lungs). With the patient under local anesthesia, the physician uses a needle to remove a fluid sample and to have it checked for cancer cells.
  • Mediastinoscopy – Permits surgeons to sample lymph nodes that drain the lungs and may be the first defense barrier to a tumor spread. It allows for better staging of lung cancer thus influencing treatment. Done under general anesthesia, media-stinoscopy does not require overnight stay.
  • Video-Assisted Thoracic Surgery (VATS) – a minimally invasive procedure involving the introduction into the chest of a video camera that transmits a picture to a video monitor. This allows surgeons to see structures within the chest so they can remove tissue samples to have them checked for cancer. This procedure requires general anesthesia. Removal of certain lesions with this technique is a possibility as well.
  • Thoracotomy – the surgical opening of the chest that requires general anesthesia, used for some patients who require surgery for a lung cancer diagnosis or for lung cancer treatment.

If the physician feels an enlarged liver or swollen lymph nodes (small bean-shaped structures that store special cells to trap cancer cells or bacteria traveling through the body), these areas may also be biopsied. The doctor may also perform a biopsy from other areas other than the lungs when cancer is suspected.

What is lung cancer staging & how is it performed?

With a diagnosis of lung cancer, physicians need to learn the stage of the lung cancer, or extent, to which the disease has progressed so they can give appropriate treatment.

Lung cancer staging is a careful process to find out whether the lung cancer has spread and, if so, to what other parts of the body.

To learn whether a patient's lung cancer has spread to the lymph nodes in the chest, physicians remove a sample of tissue either with a needle or surgically.

Surgery to biopsy lymph nodes in the chest can often be done through a small incision near the breastbone. If a thoracoscopy or a thoracotomy is planned, physicians will remove lymph nodes at that time. Patients receive general anesthesia for these operations.

Doctors may order CT scans to detect the spread of lung cancer to the lymph nodes and other parts of the body, including the brain, liver and other abdominal organs.

Radionuclide scans of the bones may also help determine whether the cancer has spread beyond the lung. For these procedures, a small amount of a radioactive substance is injected into a vein, after which a machine scans the body to reveal abnormal areas.

Radiolabeled monoclonal antibodies against lung cancer could also be used to detect the spread of the disease.

In another technique, called magnetic resonance imaging, a strong magnet linked to a computer produces images that indicate whether lung cancer has spread to the brain or spinal cord.

What are the stages of lung cancer?

Non-small cell lung cancer has four main stages:

  • Stage I: Lung cancer is found in the lung, but it has not spread outside the lung.
  • Stage II: Lung cancer is found in the lung and nearby lymph nodes.
  • Stage III: Lung cancer is in the lung and lymph nodes in the middle of the chest.
  • Stage IIIA: Lung cancer is found in lymph nodes, but only on the same side of the chest where cancer first started growing.
  • Stage IIIB: Lung cancer has spread to lymph nodes on the opposite side of the chest or to lymph nodes above the collarbone.
  • Stage IV: Lung cancer has spread to both lungs, into the area around the lungs, or to distant organs.

Small-cell lung cancer (SCLC) has two main stages: limited and extensive. In the the limited stage, lung cancer is only in one lung or nearby lymph nodes on the same side of the chest. The extensive stage means lung cancer has spread to other areas of the lungs and chest. Lung cancer at this stage may also spread to the fluid around the lungs (called the pleura) or other organs.

What are the main lung cancer treatment options?

Lung cancer treatment is more successful the earlier cancer is detected.

Physicians will develop a lung cancer treatment plan comprising surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, or a combination of the three, and tailor it to each patient's needs.

The type of treatment plan depends on many factors, including the type of lung cancer, the size and location of the tumor and the stage of the disease. Other factors to consider are the patient's age, medical history and general health.

Patients may have just one form of treatment or a combination, depending on their needs; several specialists may work as a team to provide treatment for lung cancer.

  • Surgery is performed for early-stage lung cancers when it's likely that all of the tumor can be removed. Three main types of surgery are used to treat lung cancer. The choice depends on the size, location and extent of the tumor; the general health of the patient, and other factors.
  • An operation to remove only a small part of the lung is called a segmental or wedge resection.
  • A lobectomy is the procedure in which the surgeon removes an entire lobe of the lung.
  • Pneumonectomy is the removal of an entire lung.
  • Radiation therapy like surgery, is a local treatment that kills the cancer in the treated area and is usually given five days a week for several weeks at the hospital on an outpatient basis.
  • Chemotherapy is the systemic treatment with medications that kill cancer cells. This means that the medications flow through the bloodstream to nearly every part of the body. Most anticancer medications are injected into a blood vessel or a muscle; some are given by mouth. Chemotherapy is most often given in cycles – a treatment period alternating with a "rest" period.

Usually, patients have chemotherapy as outpatients: at the hospital, at the physician's office or at home. Sometimes, depending on which medications the physician orders, patients may need to stay in the hospital a few days to be monitored for side effects.

If diagnosed with lung cancer, should I get a second opinion?

Lung cancer treatment and making decisions as to what is the best treatment option once a diagnosis with lung cancer has been made can be complicated for you and your loved ones. Before starting treatment, patients might want another doctor to review the diagnosis and the treatment plan. Here are ways to find another doctor to give a second opinion:

Patients can call Thomas Jefferson University Hospital's free physician referral service at 1-800-JEFF-NOW.

Your doctor may be able to suggest a lung cancer specialist. Specialists who treat lung cancer include thoracic (chest) surgeons, radiation oncologists and medical oncologists.

Patients can obtain the names of physicians from their local medical society, a nearby hospital or a medical school.

What is the treatment of non-small cell lung cancer?

Treating non-small cell lung cancer can be approached in several ways. The choice of treatment depends mainly on the stage of lung cancer.

Surgery is the usual treatment for lung cancer patients whose cancer is in only one lung or in one lung and the closest lymph nodes. New studies are designed to assess whether additional forms of systemic therapy before or after surgery can prevent further recurrences of the cancer.

Patients who can't have surgery because of other medical problems often receive radiation therapy. Radiation therapy is also the usual treatment for patients whose cancer has spread within the chest to more distant lymph nodes or other tissues.

It has recently been shown that chemotherapy enhances the effects of radiation therapy and is now used with radiation in most instances. Some non-small cell lung cancer patients have both surgery and radiation therapy.

Chemotherapy is used to treat patients whose cancer has spread from the lung to other parts of the body. Radiation therapy is used to control specific symptoms caused by the spread of lung cancer to specific parts of the body. Although it's very difficult to control lung cancer that has spread, treatment can often shrink the tumors. This can help relieve pain and other symptoms.

What is the treatment of small cell lung cancer?

Small cell lung cancer may spread quickly. To be sure that treatment affects all cancer cells in the body, chemotherapy is used for virtually all patients, even when the disease appears to be limited to the lung and nearby lymph nodes. Usually, chemotherapy for small cell lung cancer treatment includes a combination of two or more anticancer drugs.

When small cell lung cancer appears clinically limited to the lung, treatment also includes radiation therapy. Radiation therapy is also used to treat the lung, even without evidence of cancer, to prevent tumors from forming there; this treatment is reserved for patients whose lung tumor has responded well to treatment.

Surgery combined with chemotherapy can also be part of the treatment plan for small cell lung cancer, but only for a small number of patients.

What is the latest lung cancer research being conducted?

Scientists are continuing to identify factors that increase the risk for lung cancer. Recent lung cancer research has shown that genetic factors play an important role in this disease. For example, certain genetic traits make some people very sensitive to cancer-causing agents. Smokers with these traits may be more likely than other smokers to develop lung cancer.

Researchers are also studying ways to help people lower their risk of lung cancer by using natural and laboratory-made substances to prevent or delay cancer. Because some vitamins can be dangerous if taken in large doses, it's best to get a doctor's advice before taking vitamins or other nutrients. 

The earlier lung cancer is detected, the more successful lung cancer treatment is likely to be. Lung cancer research suggests that the use of low-dose CT of the chest (LDCT) can improve survival due to early detection of lung cancer by as much as 20 percent. LDCT uses X-rays to take a picture of the inside of your lungs and is able to detect lung nodules. New guidelines indicate that screening for lung cancer in high-risk patients can save lives. 

Because lung cancer is also difficult to control, researchers seek more effective treatment options for the disease, plus ways to reduce the side effects of treatment and improve the quality of patients' lives.

Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer death each year across the globe. However, lung cancer screenings and emerging technologies including biomarkers, nonsurgical approaches to biopsy, novel therapies involving radiotherapy and immunotherapy are giving hope to patients.

Are any lung cancer trials enrolling?

When laboratory research shows that a new treatment for lung cancer has promise, patients with lung cancer have the opportunity to receive the treatment in clinical trials or protocols.

By participating in a clinical trial for lung cancer, you may have the first chance to benefit from improved lung cancer treatment methods and the opportunity to make an important contribution to medical science.

To find out more about current lung cancer clinical trials that you may be able to participate in, ask your doctor or call 215-955-1661 or 1-800-JEFF-NOW.

Ovarian cancer is the rapid growth of abnormal cells in the ovaries of the female reproductive system. The ovaries are the two small egg-filled sacs on each side of the uterus which produce estrogen and play a key role in conception and menstruation. Cancer can occur in one or both ovaries. When there is a malignancy, the ovaries typically enlarge, and cancer cells may fall off the ovary's surface and implant themselves throughout the abdominal cavity. Each one of these seedlings can then grow into a separate ovarian cancer tumor nodule.

Who is at risk for ovarian cancer?

Each year, more than 20,000 American women will be diagnosed with ovarian cancer. The disease most often affects post-menopausal women, although women of any age may develop it. While scientists have not uncovered the cause, women in any of the following categories are known to be at higher risk: those who are infertile, who have never been pregnant, who bore children at a later age, who have had breast cancer, and women with family members who have had ovarian cancer. You cannot transmit the disease through physical or sexual contact.

Taking birth control pills reduces your risk for the disease. Women who have had tubal ligations are also less likely to get ovarian cancer. And the more often a woman has been pregnant, the less likely she is to develop ovarian cancer.

What are the symptoms of ovarian cancer?

Cancer of the ovaries often develops with no early warning signs. The first indication of the disease may be a swelling or feeling of fullness in the lower abdomen. Ovarian cancer can also cause indigestion, unusual bowel or rectal pressure, and abdominal pain or discomfort. Persistent digestive problems such as stomach discomfort, distention and gas might also be symptoms.

Your doctor may notice an ovarian cyst or other growth during your regular pelvic exam. Cysts on the ovaries rarely turn out to be cancerous, especially in women under 40. Most of these growths are normal and related to the menstrual cycle, but your physician will want to watch you closely to be certain the cyst resolves.

Can ovarian cancer be prevented?

Women who have annual pelvic exams increase their chance of early detection and a better treatment outcome if the disease is discovered. If any family relative has had cancer of the ovaries, your physician may advise you to have checkups more frequently. The genes for ovarian cancer are not “sex linked,” which means that the gene for the disease can be inherited from either your mother or father.

What if my doctor detects a growth on my ovaries?

If your doctor suspects cancer of the ovaries based on your symptoms and on a pelvic examination – a number of diagnostic procedures can help determine whether the abnormal growth is cancerous. Frequently, growths on the ovaries turn out to be nonmalignant cysts.

To determine whether the tumor is malignant, you may be referred to a gynecologic oncologist (cancer specialist) for one or a combination of the following tests:

  • Ultrasound – a painless, non-invasive sound wave technique that enables your doctor to examine the inside of your abdomen and the ovaries
  • Lower GI series – produces an X-ray of your colon to determine whether pressure from an ovarian tumor is changing the shape and position of the colon and rectum
  • CT or CAT Scan – an X-ray procedure that provides detailed pictures of cross sections of the body. The pictures are created by a computer
  • Laparotomy or Laparoscopy – these surgical procedures involve making an incision in the abdomen to biopsy the suspicious ovarian tissue. The surgeon removes the entire affected ovary so that the disease, if present, doesn't spread. You may wish to obtain a second opinion from another physician before scheduling a laparotomy.

What are some questions I need to ask my physician if ovarian cancer is diagnosed?

  1. Have you had special training in the management of gynecologic cancers or can you refer me to such a specialist?
  2. Has the cancer spread?
  3. What are the surgical options?
  4. Will I need chemotherapy or radiation, too?
  5. What are the potential side effects of the recommended treatments?
  6. Will I be infertile after treatment or are there other options?
  7. Can I work and continue my normal activities during treatment?

How is cancer of the ovaries treated?

Treating ovarian cancer requires inpatient surgery, usually performed by a gynecologic oncologist. After confirming a diagnosis of cancer, your doctor will surgically remove the affected ovary. Most often – as a precautionary measure or because the cancer has spread – your doctor will remove both ovaries, along with the fallopian tubes and uterus. In addition, the surgeon will also take samples of nearby lymph nodes, and other internal structures including fluid from the abdomen to determine whether the cancer has spread.

After surgery, most patients receive chemotherapy (anti-cancer drugs) for approximately six months to destroy any remaining cancer cells.

What are the side effects of treatment?

For several days after surgery, a woman may have problems emptying her bladder and having normal bowel movements. Doctors generally advise patients not to have sexual intercourse for 6 to 8 weeks after surgery. Removal of the ovaries also triggers menopause immediately. Symptoms such as hot flashes may be more severe than when menopause happens naturally.

The side effects of chemotherapy depend on the drug that is administered. Each woman will also respond differently to the medication. Typical temporary side effects may include lowered resistance to infections, loss of energy, loss of appetite, nausea, vomiting, hair loss, hearing problems, mouth sores and tingling or numbness of the fingers or toes.

What is the prognosis for ovarian cancer?

Follow-up care is important. You will require regular pelvic exams and lab tests to be sure the cancer has not returned. Your physician may recommend a "second look" laparotomy after completion of therapy to ensure the treatment has been successful. Women treated for ovarian cancer also have an increased risk of developing other types of cancer later in life and need special monitoring.

What are clinical trials?

When laboratory research shows that a new treatment method has promise, patients with cancer have the opportunity to receive the treatment in clinical trials or protocols.

By participating in a clinical trial you may have the first chance to benefit from improved treatment methods and the opportunity to make an important contribution to medical science.

To find out more about current clinical trials that you may be able to participate in, ask your doctor or call 215-955-1661 or 1-800-JEFF-NOW.

For an appointment with a Jefferson physician, more information or health information and education programs, please call 1-800-JEFF-NOW (1-800-533-3669).

Jefferson also offers a number of cancer support and education programs as well as a Buddy Program in which survivors of cancer provide support and encouragement to patients who are newly diagnosed and an active cancer advocacy group. You'll find information on the Jefferson web site about these programs or by calling 1-800-JEFF-NOW.

Speech- or hearing-impaired callers can access JEFF NOW® by calling 1-800-654-5984.